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Lexicon: Star Fleet Terminology - C
C 
Captain's yachtLarge shuttle docked beneath the saucer hull of a Galaxy-class and Sovereign-class starships, usually employed for diplomatic missions. -
CarbrodineOrigin unknown. Becomes explosive when mixed with infernite
CardiostimulatorA defibrillator that can restart a stopped heart but will not damage surface tissues
Cargo transporterLow-resolution high-volume transporter system for non-biological objects
CastridiniumNaturally occurring, this is the hardest substance known to Federation Science.
ChronitonsParticles, that are in a state of temporal flux. Chronitons are used to create a temporal vortex for timetravel, and are also involved with cloaking devices. Another use is as a torpedo charge by the Delta Quadrant race called the Krenim
Chroniton TorpedoKrenim weapon that employs a temporal invariance to penetrate shields. This weapon is obviously related to temporal incursion. It is not evident how the small temporal shift allows the torpedo to pass through a Federation shields as if not there. It is speculated that they are out of phase
Chronometric Particle Similar to chronotons with a different temporial variance flux
Cloaking DeviceTechnology of Romulan origin used to render a starship invisible to the eye and to sensors, also used by the Klingons, Breen, The Order, USS Defiant, and ships in the 4th Fleet. The cloaking device generates a space distortion which causes light and sensor rays to travel around the ship, so nothing is reflected from its surface.Cloaking the ship consumes large amounts of power, therefore the simultaneous use of the warp drive was not possible with the early cloaking devices in the 23rd century. Furthermore, the use of weapons is usually not possible while the cloaking device is activated. The space distortion necessary to bend light rays is equivalent to an enormous mass concentration and would certainly crush the ship and crew, so additional measures must be taken to compensate the effect inside the distortion. Other than in the Dominion War the Federation is not allowed to develope or use cloaking technology
CloningTechnique to grow a new body that is genetically identical to an existing lifeform. In the Gamma Quadrant the Vorta are a complete race of cloned individuals. Any Vorta can simply be recreated by the Founders if their predecessor is dead or regarded as unreliable
CMOThe chief medical officer is a senior staff-level position, typically held by a lieutenant commander or commander who is a Doctor of Medicine with surgical skills. CMOs aboard a starship or starbase are directly in charge of the sickbay or infirmary, commanding medical department personnel and activities. The CMO's primary duties are the oversight and maintenance of the overall health and physical fitness of crew and passengers.

In addition to the normal duties of an officer, the CMO also has the power to relieve an officer or crewman, including a superior one, of their duties if in the officer's professional judgment, he or she is medically unfit. Typically, the CMO is expected to have the support of a senior command officer and/or detailed medical documentation to justify this course of action. (TOS: "Doomsday Machine"; TNG: "Lonely Among Us"; VOY: "Year of Hell, Part II")

Officers likely to be assigned as the CMO over long-duration missions of exploration, have scientific training in disciplines outside of medicine, allowing them to take on major, extended research projects; or to better participate in a wider variety of encounters. (TOS: "The Immunity Syndrome"; TNG: "Clues", "Suspicions").

Chief medical officers were also referred to as the "ship's surgeon" in the 23rd century. (Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country)

Chief medical officers have been seen with a variety of ranks. They can hold any rank in the lieutenant grades, but are quite often seen as lieutenant commanders. Chief medical officers are eligible to take the Bridge Officer's Test for promotion to full commander. At this point, they are considered capable of assuming command of a starship. (TNG: "Thine Own Self")

CMO info from the Star Trek Wiki
http://memory-alpha.org/en/wiki/Main_Page

Cochrane MeasureA measuring system for subspace field stress. The unit of measure is employed to measure the power of a warp drive as well as of other devices which employ a subspace field, such as the impulse drive and the FTL computer core. The cochrane value equals the velocity ratio v/c for the given warp factor. Warp 1 and v/c=1.1 is achieved for a subspace distortion of 1 cochrane. Values smaller than 1 cochrane correspond to sublight speed. At Warp 10, finally, the cochrane value becomes infinite, and so does the apparent velocity. The unit was named in honor of Zefram Cochrane who built the first Terran vessel to achieve warp speed. Cochrane - Unit of subspace distortion named after Zephrem Cochrane, the inventor of warp drive. 1 cochrane is the distortion required to propel a ship at lightspeed (warp 1). Thus, to travel at warp 2 (10x lightspeed), a distortion of 10 cochranes is required. The unit cochrane is also used for the intensity of matter/antimatter-reaction in a warp core.
CommunicatorPersonnel subspace communication device, originally hand-held, later in the 24th century integrated in the Starfleet badge; the latter is also referred to as comm badge. The communicator serves to establish a voice contact to another person or computer and provides lock-on contact for the transporter. The comm badge is usually programmed with a crew member's individual bioelectric data, which is verified through a dermal sensor. The communicator will sometimes fail if used by an unauthorized person

Constitution Class

 

The Constitution class is a series of Starfleet vessels first put into service in the mid-23rd century.ships of this class support multiple roles, generally used for exploration and diplomacy, but also equipped for combat with armaments consisting of at least two photon torpedo launchers, two main phaser banks, and a number of secondary phasers.

While it is not widely known, Constitution-class vessels were capable of a saucer separation. Unlike the later Galaxy-class starship though, it was not designed as a battle ship it was meant to be used in the event of extreme emergency (The Apple (TOS episode)). Once separated the saucer relied on a battery back-up system and minimal engine power until they are rescued.

In TOS episode "Tomorrow is Yesterday" Captain Kirk said that there are only 12 ships like the Enterprise in the fleet. In the Star Fleet Technical Manua[2] --14 ships are listed for this class.
USS Constitution NCC-1700USS Enterprise NCC-1701 USS Farragut NCC-1702
USS Lexington NCC-1703 USS Yorktown NCC-1704 USS Excalibur NCC-1705
USS Exeter NCC -1706USS Hood NCC-1707 USS Intrepid NCC-1708
USS Valiant NCC-1709 USS Kongo NCC-1710USS Potemkin NCC-1711
USS Constellation NCC-1017USS Republic NCC-1371  

[2] Star Fleet Technical Manual-Joseph, Franz (1975). . Del Ray. ISBN 0-345-49586-1.

Constellation Class

The Constellation class is a class of starships once used by United Federation of Planets's Starfleet. The Constellation class is a contemporary to the refitted Constitution class and Miranda class as seen in its similar primary hull and virtually identical warp nacelles. A Constellation class starship is composed of a saucer-shaped primary hull with two backward-angled pylons at the aft end. The pylons rise vertically from the ventral side and dorsal side and each supports two warp nacelles at its end. The class was likely first produced in the late 23rd century and was mostly obsolete and underpowered by the mid-24th century. As of the 2370s, the Constellation class is no longer in production.

The known ships of the Constellation Class are as follows:
USS Constellation NX1974/NCC-1974USS Gettysburg NCC-3890
USS Gihlan NCC-9731USS Hathaway NCC-2593
USS Magellan NCC-3069USS Stargazer NCC-2893
USS Valkyrie NCC-2590USS Victory NCC-9754
Containment Field A specially shaped forcefield used to isolate dangerous materials like antimatter or biohazard specimens. Containment fields are used in antimatter storage pods to protect a ship against contact with the extremely volatile antimatter.

Somewhat different containment fields are used for quarantine isolation and for containment of dangerous biological specimens. The containment fields used in the warp drive on the Constitution Class needed to be phase locked within three percent in order to avoid instability, but by the time of the Galaxy Class, multi-phase containment fields were able to operate considerably above that value.
Cordrazine A powerful stimulant that will usually revive a stunned or unconscious patient completely. Cordrazine is "tricky stuff" - overdose can lead to delusional paranoia, and the drug is addictive. A treatment of 25cc is considered to be a deadly dosage and usually used only as a last resort in life-threatening situations.
Cortical stimulatorMedical device that stimulates brain activity in case of severe injuries.
CSCI

Chief Science Officer

Responsiblities:

Observing and theorizing explanations for strange or seemingly unexplainable circumstances. Reading sensor readings.

Heads up away team mission survey parties.

In a medical emergency, the findings of the science officer are heavily relied upon.

The science officer is required to keep sufficient data. They are also required to supply the commanding officer with all reports, observations, and speculations that might affect the safety of their vessel.

"It is the science officer's job to always have a 'better idea.'"--Jadzia Dax

CryostasisState of low biological activity in a human body, achieved by preserving the body in a cooling chamber. Cryostasis was is usually used as a technology for long-range spacetravel or to preserve a genetic pool. Another method is cryonics, meaning that the bodies of patients with incurable diseases are frozen after their deaths, hoping they might be revived in the future.
  
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